Difference Between References Bibliography Definition In French

 

The MLA citation style is widely used in the humanities. The following examples are based on the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th ed. 2003), but the underlining of titles is replaced by the use of italics in accordance with the preferred style of the humanities departments at the University of Canterbury. In the context of using EndNote, this style is referred to MLA-italics

Features:

  • brief citations in parentheses linked to an alphabetical list of references cited.
  • date not usually included in parenthetical reference.
  • no p. or pp. for page numbers

Works cited

  • book and journal titles are either underlined or in italics
  • every important word in title is capitalised
  • first line of entry flush with margin, second and subsequent lines are indented

In-Text citation

If possible, introduce the reference in the text, and give page numbers in parentheses.

Place the parentheses where there would naturally be a pause, usually at the end of the sentence, and preceding the full-stop at the end of that sentence eg

Author mentioned in text:
Jones emphasises this point (156-7).

Author mentioned only in reference:
This point has been emphasised (Jones 156-7).

Material found in indirect source:
Greenwood supports this view (in Jones 66).


Quotations

Shakespeare
see: Quoting Shakespeare by Dr Mark Womack, University of Houston

Bible
Give name of book (abbreviated) followed by chapter and verse eg Rev. 1.2-6.

 


Bibliography

Your essay should conclude with a bibliography, or full list of works consulted, arranged in order by author name. If the there is no author, place the item by the first letter of its title, ignoring 'a' and 'the' . Using the following layout:

Books

Books with one author
Winterson, Jeanette. Oranges are not the only fruit. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1987.

Books with 2 to 3 authors
Reverse the name of the first author only.

Kuiper, Koenraad and W. Scott Allan. An introduction to English language: word, sound, and sentence. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.

Books with more than 3 authors
The name of the first author should be given, followed by et al ("and others") eg Quirk, Randolph, et al.
OR
give all names in full, in the order in which they appear on the title page.

Book prepared by an editor
Austen, Jane. Sense and Sensibility. Ed. Claudia Johnson. New York: Norton, 2001.

Translated Book
Hildegard of Bingen. Selected writings. Trans. Mark Atherton. New York: Penguin, 2001

Book with no author
Use the title of the book.

eg The New English Bible. NY: Oxford University Press, 1972.

Book Chapters and Sections

Essay published in a collection
Mancoff, Debra N. "To Take Excalibur: King Arthur and the Construction of Victorian Manhood". King Arthur: A Casebook, ed. Edward D. Kennedy. New York: Garland, 1996. 257-80.

Work in an Anthology
Wendt, Albert. "The balloonfish and the Armadillo." The Picador Book of Contemporary New Zealand Fiction. Ed. Fergus Barrowman. 153-169.

Introduction, Forward, or Preface
Drabble, Margaret. Introduction to Middlemarch, by George Eliot. New York, Bantam, 1985. vii-xvii.

Multi-volume sets
Work published as part of a multi-volume series
Ruskin, John. The stones of Venice. In Works, vols 9-11.

_______. The Works of John Ruskin, ed. E.T. Cook and Alexander Wedderburn. 39 vols. London: George Allen, 1903-12.

[Also an example of citing another work by the same author]

Reference Books

Frequently updated, well-known reference title: brief
"Noon." Def. 4b. The Oxford English Dictionary. 2nd. ed. 1989.
[Also illustrates choice of one particular definition]

Specialised /lesser known reference title: in full
"Epic ". Oxford Dictionary of the Renaissance. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.

Article from an online encyclopedia
"Canterbury Tales, The." The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Ed. Margaret Drabble. Oxford University Press, 2000. Oxford Reference Online. 11 July 2005

Entry from the OED Online
"magazine, n." OED Online. June 2003. Oxford University Press. 10 Dec. 2004

(The first date is the OED entry date, the second is the access date)

Journal Articles

Enclose the title of the article in quotation marks. Italicise the title of the journal. NB: Issue numbers are only needed if the part numbers are individually paginated.

Journal article
Mayer, Jed. "Germinating Memory: Hardy and Evolutionary Biology." Victorian Review 26.1 (2000): 82-97.

Reprinted article
Barnard, Rita. "Dream topographies: J.M. Coezee and the South African Pastoral." South Atlantic Quarterly 93.1 (1994): 33-58. Rpt. in Contemporary Literary Criticism. Ed. Jeffrey Hunter. Vol. 117. Detroit: Gale, 1999. 65-74.

Film, DVD or video recording

Jackson, Peter, et al. The Lord of the Rings, the Fellowship of the Ring. Special extended DVD ed. United States: New Line Home Entertainment : New Line Cinema, 2002.

Web sites

Macrae-Gibson, O. D. "Christ and Satan." The Complete Corpus of Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 14 July 2005.


Links

NB These examples use standard MLA style with underlined titles, rather than the italicised titles used elsewhere on this page.

MLA Citation Style -Cornell University
Includes summary of what is new in MLA 6th edition and FAQs

MLA Documentation
From University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center

Sample MLA paper (pdf)

 

17 French Typographical Rules

17.01 French Typographical Rules—Introduction

In Canada, English documents often contain French-language words, phrases, names, titles, quotations, abstracts and bibliographic references. This appendix gives the basic rules of French typography. If you follow them when writing or revising, you will ensure that French-language material is correctly presented.

For further information, see Le guide du rédacteur.1

___________________

  • Back to the note1 Canada, Department of Public Works and Government Services Canada, Translation Bureau, Le guide du rédacteur, Ottawa, 1996.

17.02 French Typographical Rules—Acronyms, initialisms and abbreviations

(a) Use upper-case letters; do not use periods:

  • OTAN
    • Organisation du Traité de l’Atlantique Nord (NATO)
  • SEE
    • Société pour l’expansion des exportations (Export Development Corporation)

(b) Do not retain the accent on initial letters:

  • CEE
    • Communauté économique européenne

(c) The gender of an acronym is normally that of the initial noun:

  • le BIT
    • Bureau international du travail

But acronyms from another language take the gender of the French equivalent of the generic noun:

  • le GATT
    • General Agreement (accord) on Tariffs and Trade
  • la BBC
    • British Broadcasting Corporation (société)

(d) Use a period with the abbreviations for Monsieur and Messieurs, but not with those for Madame and Mesdames:

  • M. Ladouceur
  • MM. Jalbert et Roussel

but

  • Mme Fortier
  • Mmes Joanisse et René

Note 1

When inserting any of these abbreviations into English text, add a period:

  • Mmes. Sauvé and Legros have yet to express their opinion.

Note 2

  • Messrs. is the English equivalent of MM.

Note 3

  • The French title Madame may refer to unmarried as well as married women.

17.03 French Typographical Rules—Word division

Divide a word at the end of a line as follows:

  • between two consonants (car-gaison, ex-caver, dic-taphone);
  • before a consonant separating two vowels (cargai-son, poly-culture);
  • between the two parts of a compound (bloc-moteur, coûts-bénéfices);
  • between recognizable logical components of a word (électro-statique; trans-action);
  • between two vowels in compounds, unless the second vowel belongs to the first part of the compound (extra-ordinaire, ré-unirbutoléo-duc).

See 2.04 Compound adjectives; adjectives and participles in compounds(j) for information on the hyphenation of French words used as compound adjectives.

17.04 French Typographical Rules—Capitalization

(a) Capitalize nord, sud, est and ouest when included in the name of a building, geographical feature, address, region, state, territory, continent or part of a continent:

  • la rive Sud
  • la Caroline du Nord
  • le Grand Nord
  • l’Amérique du Sud
  • la tour Est
  • le cap Nord
  • la rivière Nicolet Sud-Ouest
  • rue Sainte-Catherine Ouest

For further information on the treatment of French-language place names, see Chapter 15.

Do not capitalize these words when they represent a point of the compass, a direction or a part of a building or other entity:

  • le nord géographique
  • 30 kilomètres à l’est de Gatineau
  • le côté ouest de l’étage

(b) Capitalize the definite article when it is part of a person’s name:

  • Michel Le Cavalier
  • Jean de La Vérendrye

See also 4.03 Personal names(d).

(c) Capitalize nouns designating peoples, races and inhabitants of a particular country or region, and capitalize both parts of a compound noun used for this purpose:

  • les Autochtones
  • un Noir
  • les Canadiens
  • une Ontarienne
  • les Anglo-Saxons
  • un Néo-Zélandais

Do not capitalize such words when they are used adjectivally or to refer to a language:

  • les citoyens canadiens
  • les femmes noires
  • le pétrole albertain
  • un Canadien français
  • une Basque espagnole
  • apprendre l’arabe

(d) Capitalize the following nouns when they are part of the official name of a government body, a sector of a government department, an institution, or an international organization: Administration, Agence, Association, Banque, Bureau, Caisse, Chambre, Comité, Commission, Conseil, Cour, Direction générale, Division, Fédération, Office, Organisation, Parlement, Régie, Secrétariat, Sénat, Service, Société, Syndicat, Tribunal, Université,etc.:

  • la Banque mondiale
  • la Commission de la fonction publique
  • la Cour fédérale du Canada
  • la Direction générale des finances
  • la Division de la formation
  • l’Office du crédit agricole
  • la Régie des rentes du Québec
  • le Tribunal du commerce extérieur

Exception

Do not capitalize the word ministère in a French text, but capitalize it in an English text:

  • le ministère de l’Industrie
  • le ministère des Affaires indiennes et du Nord canadien

but

  • An agreement has been reached with the Government of Quebec—specifically with the Ministère des Ressources naturelles.

Note

If you are including the French name of an institution in an English text, do not use the French definite article (le, la, l’) unless it is part of the official name and must be retained for legal purposes:

  • Queen’s University will co-operate with the
  • Université Laval on this federally funded project.

(e) Do not capitalize position titles unless they are being used to address a specific person:

  • le directeur des Ventes
  • le ministre des Finances

but

  • Monsieur le Recteur et cher ami
  • Monsieur le Directeur

(f) In general, capitalize the first word and any proper noun in the title of a book, periodical, newspaper, report or article:

  • Artisanat et création au Québec
  • Le nouvel ordre économique international
  • Rapport du vérificateur général du Canada

Exceptions

17.05 French Typographical Rules—Numerical expressions

Present the time of day and dates as follows:

  • 23 décembre 1995or95-12-23
  • Heures de travail : de 9 h à 17 h 30
  • l’année financière 1995-1996not1995-96

Use the comma as the decimal marker in French texts and place the dollar sign after the numerals:

  • 2,3 millions de dollarsor2 300 000 $

Note the space between the numerals and the dollar sign.

See also 5.09 Decimal fractions and 5.26 Other considerations.

17.06 French Typographical Rules—Italics

In general, use italics for the same purposes as in English writing: titles, emphasis, etc.

See 6.03 French and foreign words and phrases for the italicization of French words and phrases in English text.

17.07 French Typographical Rules—Punctuation

Adopt the following rules for spacing with punctuation marks.

MarkBeforeAfter
Asterisk before word  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 spaceNo space
Asterisk after word   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .No space1 space
Colon   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 space1 space
Comma   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . .  . .No space1 space
Decimal comma   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . .No spaceNo space
Dash (em)   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . .1 space1 space
Ellipsis points at beginning of sentence    . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . .No space1 space
Ellipsis points in middle or at end of sentence   . . . . . . . . . . .No space1 space
Exclamation mark    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . .No space1 space
Oblique   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .No spaceNo space
Parenthesis/bracket (opening)   . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 spaceNo space
Parenthesis/bracket (closing)     . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . .No space1 space
Period   . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . .No space1 space
Question mark  . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . .No space1 space
Quotation mark (opening)   . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . .1 space1 space
Quotation mark (closing)    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 space1 space
Semicolon    . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .No space1 space

See 8.14 French and foreign-language quotations for information on the presentation of French quotations and translations.

See 9.06 Translation for the presentation of bibliographic entries.

See 9.45 Personal names for the presentation of French names in indexes.

© Public Works and Government Services Canada, 2018
TERMIUM Plus®, the Government of Canada's terminology and linguistic data bank
Writing tools – The Canadian Style
A product of the Translation Bureau

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